Valuing and validating bilingualism in canada Malay camsexchat

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We identified three integrative themes: 1) experiencing hardship and/or loss in the context of precarious migration and past traumas; 2) building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations; and 3) living transnationally: obligations, challenges and resources.

Each theme contributed to shaping the parenthood experience; the transnationalism theme intersected with the themes on hardship and loss and resilience and strength.

Subject headings and keywords used related to parenthood (e.g., motherhood, fatherhood, parenting, child rearing) and migration (e.g., immigrant, refugee, immigration, asylum) and terms were adjusted depending on the standardized vocabulary used for each database.

The searches for migration and parenthood were combined using the AND Boolean operator.

More research is needed with fathers, extended family members, asylum-seekers and in the LMIC context.

are individuals who migrated through irregular channels (i.e., movement outside of regulatory norms without the necessary authorization or documents required under immigration regulations) or who remained in a country without authorization or documents required under immigration regulations [].

Keywords were searched only within the titles, abstracts and keywords.

Searches were limited to English and French literature and to the period of January 2006 to February 2017.

While all families may face challenges, migrants may experience compounding difficulties due to the loss of social support networks including their extended family, adjustments necessitated by a new cultural context, experiences of discrimination, declines in social economic status, and reduced access to health and social services [].

Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants with undocumented status have particularly challenging migration trajectories.

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